Same Sex Marriage Research Paper Introduction
Same-sex marriage - Wikipedia
Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony. The term marriage equality refers to a political status in which the marriages of same-sex couples and the marriages of opposite-sex couples are recognized as equal by the law.
Same Sex Marriage Research Paper Introduction
Children from ibfs were most likely of all to identify as entirely heterosexual. Moreover, these studies most typically interview the parents for their point of view about what it is like to be parenting as a gay man or lesbian woman. Any claims about the general population that are based on a group that does not represent it will be defective, because the sample will be less diverse than what a truly representative sample would reveal.
This third point is a significant strength of the nfss because, to date, there is only one other gay parenting study that draws from a large, random sample, that of michael rosenfeld of stanford university, who relies upon 2000 u. By drawing from a large, random sample of the american population rather than a small convenience sample, by interviewing the children in their young-adult years rather than their parents, and by comparing them to the children of intact, biological families rather than only to children of divorced, stepparent, adoptive, or single-parent families, the nfss found important and wide-ranging differences between young adults raised by their own, biological, married parents and young adults who reported having a mother in a same-sex relationship, and to a lesser degree, those who reported having a father in the same. It is plausible to argue that, in a prejudiced social climate, lesbian and gay parents may have more at stake in presenting a positive picture.
Although there is much speculation that today there are large numbers of same-sex couples in the u. That said, the study did control for many other variables, like age, gender, race or ethnicity, level of mothers education, perceived household income while growing up, the degree of legislative gay-friendliness of the respondents home state, and experience of being bullied as a youth. In percentages, 31 of mlrs said they had been forced to have sex, compared with 25 of fgrs and 8 of ibfs.
Despite the lack of empirical evidence for the claim that today there are large numbers of stable, two-parent gay households, for the last ten years, contemporary gay parenting research has nevertheless claimed that there are no significant differences (and some benefits) to being raised by same-sex parents. An even smaller share (23) said they had spent at least three years living in the same household with their mothers romantic partner. While these types of studies are valuable for gathering information about the specific lesbians who demonstrate those kinds of behaviors (that is, who attend book stores, read newspapers, and are out enough to attend lesbian events) they are problematic when the goal is to generalize to the general population of lesbians, some of whom may not have the social, economic, or behavioral patterns of the former group.
Although researchers usually note this limitation of their studies, the media almost always fail to transmit that limitation to the public at large, so the overall impression is that gay parents are doing just as well (or better) when compared to a large selection of heterosexual parents. Therefore, regnerus analyzed the new nfss data to verify this claim. On 25 out of 40 outcomes evaluated, there were statistically significant differences between children from ibfs and those of mlrs in many areas that are unambiguously suboptimal, such as receiving welfare, need for therapy, infidelity, stis, sexual victimization, educational attainment, safety of the family of origin, depression, attachments and dependencies, marijuana use, frequency of smoking, and criminal behavior.
Cited in regnerus, 3 (also citing bos and sandfort, 2010 brewaeys et al. This new evidence is based on the data from , of which regnerus was the lead investigator and which in 2011 surveyed 2,988 young adults for the specific purpose of collecting more reliable, nationally representative data about children from various family origins intact biological families, late-divorced families, stepfamilies, single-parent families, adoptive families, families with a lesbian mother, families with a gay father, and other family types (such as families with a deceased parent or other combinations). Among those who said their father had had a same-sex relationship, 42 reported living with him while he was in the relationship, and only 24 reported living with him and his partner for at least four months. Stacey and biblarzs affidavit criticized nock for arguing that there was no scientifically valid evidence for the claim that children with same-sex parents and children with heterosexual parents have equal outcomes. These results are generally consistent with research on heterosexual families for instance, a recent federal report showed that children in heterosexual families are least likely to be sexually, physically, or emotionally abused in an intact, biological, married family.
Ten Arguments From Social Science Against Same-Sex Marriage
Ten Arguments From Social Science Against Same-Sex Marriage By Family Research Council. A large and growing body of scientific evidence indicates that the intact, married family is best for children.
Same Sex Marriage Research Paper Introduction
Charity and Sylvia: A Same-Sex Marriage in Early America ...
Charity and Sylvia is the intimate history of two ordinary women who lived in an extraordinary same-sex marriage during the early nineteenth century. Based on diaries, letters, and poetry, among other original documents, the research traces the women's lives in sharp detail.
Same Sex Marriage Research Paper Introduction
For example, Controls help sociologists eliminate alternative explanations for a given outcome.
Not only did the nfss find clear differences between the children of ibfs on the one hand and mlrs and fgrs on the other, but it also suggests that there are notable differences within gay parenting arrangements themselves. These levels are higher than the corresponding 13 of heterosexual marriages that end in divorce within five years in sweden.
Third, the nfss drew from a large, random sample of the u, When asked to report upon frequency of marijuana use, the young-adult children of divorced parents were the worst off, reporting to use marijuana on average one and a half times more frequently than children of ibfs next came the children of mlrs, followed by the children of single parents.
Marriage Equality (2012) | Australian Human Rights Commission
The available data, which are drawn primarily from small convenience samples, are insufficient to support a strong generalizable claim either way. This research does not tell us how the children turn out as adults. Utilizing state of the art digital printing, we produce product packaging, aisle signs, ceiling danglers, dump bins, rsc boxes, standees, channel strips, posters, and more. Therefore, although it would have been helpful to compare the children of ibfs to the children of committed and intact gay or lesbian couples, this was attempted, but was not feasible. The goal was simply to identify average differences among the groups of children and to test just how strong the groups differences were.
Two peer-reviewed research articles in the social sciences, released june 10, 2012, challenge the claim made by same-sex parenting researchers over the last decade that parents engaged in same-sex relationships do just as well as other parents at raising children. The one other gay-parenting study of large, random samples of childrenrosenfeldsmeasured only one such outcome childrens educational achievement. Children from ibfs were most likely of all to identify as entirely heterosexual. The children of fgrs were three times more likely to have been forced to have sex than the children of ibfs. An even smaller share (23) said they had spent at least three years living in the same household with their mothers romantic partner.
Moreover, these studies most typically interview the parents for their point of view about what it is like to be parenting as a gay man or lesbian woman. Additionally, the nfss gathered data on an ample range of childrens outcomes that are of interest to research on gay parenting, covering the social, emotional, and relational well-being of the respondents. Other current studies on gay parenting focus on what is going on inside the households of lesbian and gay parents at present, while the children are still under their parents care. Stacey and biblarzs affidavit criticized nock for arguing that there was no scientifically valid evidence for the claim that children with same-sex parents and children with heterosexual parents have equal outcomes. The nfss interviewed the sons and daughters of parents who had a same-sex relationship after they had grown up and matured into young adults (ages 1839), and most of them had already moved out of their parents home. Controls help sociologists eliminate alternative explanations for a given outcome, making the causal link between parenting structure and childrens outcomes more likely when the results are statistically significant after controls. Although data on gay and lesbian parenting was not yet available for the reason that it was too rare to study adequately, it was difficult to imagine that gay and lesbian parents would be able to accomplish what heterosexuals in step-parenting, adoptive, single-parenting, and cohabiting contexts had not been able to do, namely, replicate the optimal child-rearing environment of married, biological-parent homes. In percentages, 31 of mlrs said they had been forced to have sex, compared with 25 of fgrs and 8 of ibfs. On criminal outcomes, the children of fgrs showed the greatest propensity to be involved in crime. However, as early as 2001, social scientists working on sexual orientation and parenting began to claim just that, that there were not as many differences as sociologists would expect between outcomes for children in same-sex versus heterosexual unions, and that the differences were not negative, but favorable.Introduction. The Australian Human Rights Commission considers that the fundamental human rights principle of equality means that civil marriage should be available, without discrimination, to all couples, regardless of sex, sexual orientation or gender identity.
Homosexuality - WikipediaHomosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.As a sexual orientation, homosexuality is "an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions" to people of the same sex.
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Regnerus, 753, 755, citing nock, 2001 perrin and committee on psychosocial aspects of child and family health, 2002 redding, 2008. New studies suggest that children do best when they are raised by their biological parents in a stable, intact marriage. Judith stacey and tim biblarz, 2001 article in american sociological review. So, for instance, when the study finds that children who had a parent in a same-sex romantic relationship are much more likely to suffer from depression as young adults than the children who came from intact biological families, it does not claim that the gay parent was the cause of the depression in his or her child, but simply that such children on average had more depression, for reasons unidentified by the study Buy now Same Sex Marriage Research Paper Introduction
The data suggest that the claim is false if one compares the grown children of a parent who had a same-sex relationship to those from ibfs. The children of mlrs reported the lowest levels of perceived safety in their childhood home, followed by children of fgrs, with the children of ibfs reporting the highest levels of perceived safety. Regarding physical health, when asked if they had ever had a sexually transmitted infection (sti), the young-adult children of fgrs were three times more likely to say yes than those of ibfs. The nfss has already been acknowledged by critics to be better situated than virtually all previous studies to detect differences between these groups in the population Same Sex Marriage Research Paper Introduction Buy now
The nfss looked at how the children fared in 40 different areas, a few of which will be highlighted here. And bibliarz and stacey, 2010 11 preliminary data hint that their relationships may prove less durable. At the turn of the millennium, social scientists widely agreed that children raised by unmarried mothers, divorced parents, cohabiting parents, and step-parents fared worse than children raised by their still-married, biological parents. An even smaller share (23) said they had spent at least three years living in the same household with their mothers romantic partner. Steven nock, the late sociologist of the family at the university of virginia, said comparable things in his affidavit for the supreme court of ontario, in halpern v Buy Same Sex Marriage Research Paper Introduction at a discount
The remaining portion of this summary will focus on this new research as featured in dr. The fact that both parents have a biological connection to the child would increase the likelihood that the parents would identify with the child and be willing to sacrifice for that child, and it would reduce the likelihood that either parent would abuse the child. This research does not tell us how the children turn out as adults. These results are generally consistent with research on heterosexual families for instance, a recent federal report showed that children in heterosexual families are least likely to be sexually, physically, or emotionally abused in an intact, biological, married family. Therefore, these two new studies reaffirmand strengthenthe conviction that the gold standard for raising children is still the intact, biological family Buy Online Same Sex Marriage Research Paper Introduction
The data suggest that the claim is false if one compares the grown children of a parent who had a same-sex relationship to those from ibfs. Contrary to monolithic images of gay parents as committed couples who plan their family and adopt a child, the nfss suggests that the children of mlrs and fgrs raised in the mid-1970s to 2000s were a diverse group hailing from a range of racial and ethnic groups, and with parents moving in and out of relationships, experiencing a comparatively high level of relationship instability. No matter what the project, our facilities and state of the art equipment guarantee fast turnaround and professional grade work every time. Despite drawing from a large, representative sample of the u Buy Same Sex Marriage Research Paper Introduction Online at a discount
Such a design, in theory, would not only ensure that children had access to the time and money of two adults, it also would provide a system of checks and balances that promoted quality parenting. Jekielek and carol emig, marriage from a childs perspective how does family structure affect children, and what can be done about it? Research brief, (washington, dc child trends, june 2002). In the end, he found the claim to be more plausible when comparing the grown children of parents who had a same-sex relationship to the grown children of divorced, adopted, single-parented, or step-parented arrangements. In other words, the results are not a report card on gay parenting, but a report on the average condition of grown children from households of parents who had a same-sex relationship versus those from ibfs Same Sex Marriage Research Paper Introduction For Sale
Although there is speculation that todays gay men and lesbian women are more likely to plan for children and seek out ivf, surrogacy, and adoption to have them, the study suggests that the children who were raised by a gay or lesbian parent as little as 15 years ago were usually conceived within a heterosexual marriage, which then underwent divorce or separation, leaving the child with a single parent. An even smaller share (23) said they had spent at least three years living in the same household with their mothers romantic partner. Therefore, although it would have been helpful to compare the children of ibfs to the children of committed and intact gay or lesbian couples, this was attempted, but was not feasible For Sale Same Sex Marriage Research Paper Introduction
In the end, he found the claim to be more plausible when comparing the grown children of parents who had a same-sex relationship to the grown children of divorced, adopted, single-parented, or step-parented arrangements. Public perceptions and stereotypes of children of gays and lesbians usually assume them to be white, upper-middle-class members of society. However, as early as 2001, social scientists working on sexual orientation and parenting began to claim just that, that there were not as many differences as sociologists would expect between outcomes for children in same-sex versus heterosexual unions, and that the differences were not negative, but favorable. Other current studies on gay parenting focus on what is going on inside the households of lesbian and gay parents at present, while the children are still under their parents care Sale Same Sex Marriage Research Paper Introduction
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