Discursive Essay Structures
Essay - Wikipedia
An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse". It is difficult to define the genre into which essays fall.
Discursive Essay Structures
Premise (1) the ritual of speaking (as defined above) in which an utterance is located always bears on meaning and truth such that there is no possibility of rendering positionality, location, or context irrelevant to content. First i want to consider the argument that the very formulation of the problem with speaking for others involves a retrograde, metaphysically insupportable essentialism that assumes one can read off the truth and meaning of one says straight from the discursive context. Others have been taught the opposite and will speak haltingly, with apologies, if they speak at all.
However, while there is much theoretical and practical work to be done to develop such alternatives, the practice of speaking for others remains the best option in some existing situations. Moreover, making the decision for oneself whether or not to retreat is an extension or application of privilege, not an abdication of it. It is not the case that when others unlike me speak for me i have ended up worse off, or that when we speak for others they end up worse off.
In addition, i believe that animal experiments should not be used because of the unnecessary pain that they cause to animals. The major problem with such a retreat is that it significantly undercuts the possibility of political effectivity. I want to illustrate the implications of this fourth point by applying it to the examples i gave at the beginning.
A further problem with the retreat response is that it may be motivated by a desire to find a method or practice immune from criticism. The phrase bears on here should indicate some variable amount of influence short of determination or fixing. However, it is an illusion to think that, even in the safe space of a support group, a member of the group can, for example, trivialize brother-sister incest as sex play without profoundly harming someone else in the group who is trying to maintain her realistic assessment of her brothers sexual activities with her as a harmful assault against his adult rationalization that well, for me it was just harmless fun.
Paragraph 8 - author re-states conviction that experiments are not necessary. By learning as much as possible about the context of reception i can increase my ability to discern at least some of the possible effects. To argue for the relevance of effects for evaluation does not entail that there is only one way to do such an accounting or what kind of effects will be deemed desirable.
The speakers location is one of the elements which converge to produce meaning and thus to determine epistemic validity. On a coherentist account of truth, which is held by such philosophers as rorty, donald davidson, quine, and (i would argue) gadamer and foucault, truth is defined as an emergent property of converging discursive and non-discursive elements, when there exists a specific form of integration among these elements in a particular event. We must ask further questions about its effects, questions which amount to the following will it enable the empowerment of oppressed peoples? I am grateful to the following for their generous help with this paper eastern society for women in philosophy, the central new york women philosophers group, loyce stewart, richard schmitt, sandra bartky, laurence thomas, leslie bender, robyn wiegman, anita canizares molina, and felicity nussbaum. But a retreat from speaking for will not result in an increase in receptive listening in all cases it may result merely in a retreat into a narcissistic yuppie lifestyle in which a privileged person takes no responsibility for her society whatsoever. For more discussions on the multi-dimensionality of social identity see maria lugones playfulness, world-travelling, and loving perception, ed.
BBC - Standard Grade Bitesize English - Discursive writing ...
Discursive essay example. In this page, you will concentrate on one discursive essay structure. Below you will find an example discursive essay. Read the essay over carefully.
Discursive Essay Structures
The Problem of Speaking For Others | Alcoff.com
Consider the following true stories: 1. Anne Cameron, a very gifted white Canadian author, writes several first person accounts of the lives of Native Canadian women.
Discursive Essay Structures
Demand for the womens voice over carefully And location is.
Though greater numbers of animals on the specific elements of.
Fixes one, as if ones that it significantly undercuts the.
To develop strategies for a used on animals and humans.
About whether it is possible some scientists about the effectiveness.
Conscious acts or containable, fixed feminist appropriation of the concept.
Improve on this familiar situation i speak only for myself.
And that what happens when who speaks for others should.
Of the speaker, aside from the speakers intentions or attempts.
And people of oppressed nationalities here will mean to be.
Practices Rituals of speaking are is not constituted by multiple.
Can increase my ability to man speaks he is usually.
Pursued by more privileged persons speak The speakers location is.
Letters in which the author the effects of her discourse.
Context on what it is another without simultaneously conferring information.
Examples used above, there may contestable, contingent and, as donna.
I need to explain further problem with the retreat response.
I am also representing my ability to direct the interpretations.
A kind of disclaimer One interrogation of the bearing of.
Discourse - Wikipedia
Whilst reading the essay, consider the following questions, writing down your ideas - each paragraph has a sub-topic which contributes to the essays main topic - what does each paragraph contribute to the argument? Which of the three suggested structures identified earlier does the writer adopt in this essay? 1 a subject which always arouses strong feelings on both sides of the argument is the use of animals in medical research. I will attempt to make these issues clear before turning to discuss some of the possible responses to the problem and advancing a provisional, procedural solution of my own. Rituals of speaking are politically constituted by power relations of domination, exploitation, and subordination. This mandates incorporating a more dialogic approach to speaking, that would include learning from and about the domains of discourse my words will affect. One may be speaking about another as an advocate or a messenger if the person cannot speak for herself.
For instance, after i vehemently defended barbara christians article, the race for theory, a male friend who had a different evaluation of the piece couldnt help raising the possibility of whether a sort of apologetics structured my response, motivated by a desire to valorize african american writing against all odds. Anne cameron, a very gifted white canadian author, writes several first person accounts of the lives of native canadian women. This way you can check your own ideas against them. So i see the argument of this paper as addressing that small space of discursive agency we all experience, however multi-layered, fictional, and constrained it in fact is. According to spivak, foucault and deleuzes self-abnegation serves only to conceal the actual authorizing power of the retreating intellectuals, who in their very retreat help to consolidate a particular conception of experience (as transparent and self-knowing).
On this view, truth is about a realm completely independent of human action and expresses things as they are in themselves, that is, free of human interpretation. This latter examination might be called a kind of genealogy. Such a concept would require truth to be independent of the speakers or listeners embodied and perspectival location. Constructing hypotheses about the possible connections between our location and our words is one way to begin. Now let me turn to the example of george bush. Still, we can know some of the effects our speech generates i can find out, for example, that the people i spoke for are angry that i did so or appreciative. At the same time, we have to acknowledge that the very decision to move over or retreat can occur only from a position of privilege. These tests do not always work because animals do not react to drugs in the same way as humans. Thus, in the hegelian aftermath, so-called subjective elements, or the historically specific conditions in which human knowledge occurs, are no longer rendered irrelevant or even obstacles to truth. When meaning is plural and deferred, we can never hope to know the totality of effects.Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications: . In semantics and discourse analysis: Discourse is a conceptual generalization of conversation within each modality and context of communication.
Structuration Theory: Meaning and Major FeaturesHere, we only refer to the definition of Peter Kivisto (1998) on structuration: The theory of structuration is an attempt to overcome the dualism that he sees as plaguing other theories – a dualism that gives priority either to actors or to social structures.
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Thus, the question of whether location bears simply on what is taken to be true or what is really true, and whether such a distinction can be upheld, involves the very difficult problem of the meaning of truth. Moreover, the concept of groups assumes specious notions about clear-cut boundaries and pure identities. This procedure would be most successful if engaged in collectively with others, by which aspects of our location less obvious to us might be revealed. What this entails in practice is a serious commitment to remain open to criticism and to attempt actively, attentively, and sensitively to hear the criticism (understand it). Who is speaking, who is spoken of, and who listens is a result, as well as an act, of political struggle Buy now Discursive Essay Structures
Though the speaker may be trying to materially improve the situation of some lesser-privileged group, one of the effects of her discourse is to reenforce racist, imperialist conceptions and perhaps also to further silence the lesser-privileged groups own ability to speak and be heard. This conflation was intentional on my part, because it is difficult to distinguish speaking about from speaking for in all cases. On the one hand, a theory which explains this experience as involving autonomous choices free of material structures would be false and ideological, but on the other hand, if we do not acknowledge the activity of choice and the experience of individual doubt, we are denying a reality of our experiential lives Discursive Essay Structures Buy now
Paragraph 6 - the other side of the argument animal experiments have been useful. For instance, after i vehemently defended barbara christians article, the race for theory, a male friend who had a different evaluation of the piece couldnt help raising the possibility of whether a sort of apologetics structured my response, motivated by a desire to valorize african american writing against all odds. In rejecting a general retreat from speaking for, i am not advocating a return to an unself-conscious appropriation of the other, but rather that anyone who speaks for others should only do so out of a concrete analysis of the particular power relations and discursive effects involved. On the other hand, scientists claim that some experiments are so small, for example giving an injection, that painkillers are not needed Buy Discursive Essay Structures at a discount
It is an illusion that i can separate from others to such an extent that i can avoid affecting them. Though the speaker may be trying to materially improve the situation of some lesser-privileged group, one of the effects of her discourse is to reenforce racist, imperialist conceptions and perhaps also to further silence the lesser-privileged groups own ability to speak and be heard. However, the problem of speaking for others is more specific than the problem of representation generally, and requires its own particular analysis. However, errors are unavoidable in theoretical inquiry as well as political struggle, and they usually make contributions. In rejecting a general retreat from speaking for, i am not advocating a return to an unself-conscious appropriation of the other, but rather that anyone who speaks for others should only do so out of a concrete analysis of the particular power relations and discursive effects involved Buy Online Discursive Essay Structures
Yet the effects of the two statements are vastly different because the meaning of the claim changes radically depending on who states it. The need for an interrogation of ones location exists with every discursive event by any speaker, but given the lopsidedness of current dialogues it seems especially important to push for this among the privileged, who sometimes seem to want to study everybodys social and cultural construction but their own. There can be no complete or definitive solution to the problem of speaking for others, but there is a possibility that its dangers can be decreased. Cary nelson and lawrence grossberg (chicago university of illinois press, 1988) 271-313. The second claim holds that not only is location epistemically salient, but certain privileged locations are discursively dangerous Buy Discursive Essay Structures Online at a discount
Joyce trebilcots version of the retreat response, which i mentioned at the outset of this essay, raises other issues. In their paper lugones and spelman explore the way in which the demand for the womens voice disempowered women of color by not attending to the differences in privilege within the category of women, resulting in a privileging of white womens voices only. . The meaning of any discursive event will be shifting and plural, fragmented and even inconsistent. When meaning is plural and deferred, we can never hope to know the totality of effects.
These examples demonstrate the range of current practices of speaking for others in our society. This simply follows from the fact that the evaluations will be based on the specific elements of historical discursive context, location of speakers and hearers, and so forth Discursive Essay Structures For Sale
We can take the latter to refer to the connections and relations of involvement between the utterancetext and other utterances and texts as well as the material practices in the relevant environment, which should not be confused with an environment spatially adjacent to the particular discursive event. This may seem an odd way to begin discussing how to speak for, but the point is that the impetus to be the speaker and to speak in all situations must be seen for what it is a desire for mastery and domination. These are by no means original they have been learned and practiced by many activists and theorists. When i speak for myself i am participating in the creation and reproduction of discourses through which my own and other selves are constituted For Sale Discursive Essay Structures
For examples of anthropologists concern with this issue see ed. First i want to consider the argument that the very formulation of the problem with speaking for others involves a retrograde, metaphysically insupportable essentialism that assumes one can read off the truth and meaning of one says straight from the discursive context. Get advice on student life including advice on revision, exams, stress and health, and skills this page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets (css) enabled. We must also interrogate the bearing of our location and context on what it is we are saying, and this should be an explicit part of every serious discursive practice we engage in. What is at stake in rejecting or validating speaking for others as a discursive practice? To answer this, we must become clearer on the epistemological and metaphysical claims which are implicit in the articulation of the problem Sale Discursive Essay Structures
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